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Research Roundup Chemical Hazards (AIHce EXP 2023 OnDemand)

Course Description:
Recorded at AIHce EXP 2023

Influence of Metal Surface Characteristics on Dermal Metal Transfer Following Repeated Contacts-Part 2

Interest in dermal exposure as a pathway of exposure has increased as other exposure pathways, ingestion and inhalation, are further understood and mitigated. While substance transfer to the skin surface has been hypothesized to occur through numerous different pathways and compartments, few studies have investigated the potential for measurable transfer by pathway. In this study, copper, lead and silver transfer was quantitatively evaluated between different pathways (source-to-skin; skin-to-skin; skin-to-object) using a wipe sampling methodology. Geometric mean sampling results suggest that, for a single contact, lead transfers more readily from source to skin (0.70 µg/cm2) than copper (0.072 µg/cm2), which transfers more readily than silver (0.0070 µg/cm2). Once on the skin, copper is transferred from skin-to-skin and skin-to-objects more readily than lead, and the transfer efficiency of silver was unable to be quantified due to a high proportion of non-detect values, which qualitatively suggested poor transfer.

The influence of metal surface characteristics was investigated to assess the effects of loading onto the skin following contacts. Under ambient conditions, elemental metals form an exceedingly thin natural passivation layer composed of oxides, sulfides, carbonates and/or other metal salts. The surface characteristics of the ingots are likely to impact the amount of metal that is loaded onto the skin and transferred to different compartments.

Jennifer Sahmel; Hannah Calcaterra Mazzotta; Josh Maskrey

Acknowledgements & References

Tyler Ferracini, MS, CIH, Insight Exposure & Risk Sciences Group Broomfield, CO
United States of America

Dermal Transfer Characteristics of Silver Metal-Part 1

Interest in dermal exposure assessment has increased due to the recent coronavirus and monkeypox pandemics and as other exposure pathways, including ingestion and inhalation, are better understood and controlled for by occupational hygienists. Few studies have investigated the potential for measurable dermal transfer of metallic elements, including silver, which is used as an antimicrobial agent. In this study, silver was loaded onto fingers from a source (99.9% silver ingots). Silver transfer was quantitatively evaluated for three different transfer pathways: source-to-skin, skin-to-skin, and skin-to-surface using a methodical wipe sampling technique. Further, the impact of skin hydration and barrier properties on transfer was also assessed using three different instruments for comparison. The results indicated that, relative to a baseline of 100% transfer for a single contact, the quantitative transfer efficiency per contact between the ingot source and skin decreased to 64% after five contacts and 31% after ten contacts. Skin-to-skin transfer efficiency was not possible to quantify due to a high number of non-detect samples, suggesting both poor initial loading and poor transfer characteristics. Future research will include increased source-to-skin and skin-to-skin wipe sample replicates to increase confidence in the transfer percentages. This presentation will assist attendees in understanding quantitative loading and dermal transfer through different transfer pathways.

T. Ferracini, Insight Exposure & Risk Sciences, CO, USA
J. Maskrey, Insight Exposure & Risk Sciences, PA, USA
J. Sahmel, Insight Exposure & Risk Sciences, CO, USA

Acknowledgements & References

Hannah Mazzotta, MPH, Insight Exposure & Risk Sciences Group Boulder, CO
United States of America

Contact Hours:

Presentation Date:

Ryan Hill, CIH, CSP
Tyler Ferracini, MS, CIH
Hannah Mazzotta, MPH