Recorded at AIHce EXP 2021
Temporal and Spatial Variations of Trichloramine and Trichloromethane Levels in Four Indoor Swimming Pools and Validation of New Trichloramine 8-hours Sampling Method
Exposure to airborne disinfection by-products, especially trichloramine (TCA) and trichloromethane (TCM), may cause various adverse occupational health effects in indoor swimming pools. This study aims to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation in TCA and TCM concentrations within and between swimming pools. Workplace measurements were carried out at four indoor swimming pools in Quebec (Canada). Sampling started two hours before the swimming pools opening time and continued until two hours after closing time. Three hundred and nine TCA and TCM air samples were collected. For each test, total TCA and TCM concentrations, temperature, humidity, and CO2 concentrations were measured simultaneously. The results showed that both TCA and TCM exposure have spatial and temporal variations. The observed daily variation in TCA and TCM concentration indicated that the common practice of collecting a single 2-hour measurement cannot be representative of the daily pool contamination levels and full-shift worker exposure. However, the cost of TCA and TCM tests may limit the number of samples collected during an assessment. This study recommends a new 8-hour sampling strategy using a cassette with three impregnated filters as a valid and cost-effective solution for time-weighted average (TWA), TCA occupational exposure assessments.
Acknowledgements and References: This work was supported by the Institut de recherche Robert-Sauve en sante et en securite du travail ( IRSST) References: 1. Jacobs, J.H., et al., Exposure to trichloramine and respiratory symptoms in indoor swimming pool workers. European Respiratory Journal, 2007. 29(4): p. 690-698. 2. Fantuzzi, G., et al., Prevalence of Ocular, Respiratory and Cutaneous Symptoms in Indoor Swimming Pool Workers and Exposure to Disinfection By-Products (DBPs). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2010. 7(4): p. 1379-1391. 3. Saleem, S., et al., Investigating the effects of design and management factors on DBPs levels in indoor aquatic centres. 2018. 4. Hery, M., et al., Exposure to chloramines in the atmosphere of indoor swimming pools. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1995. 39(4): p. 427-439. 5. Ahmadpour, E., Evaluation of trichloramine sampling strategies used for estimating occupational exposures in indoor swimming pools in AIHcec2020. 2020, AIHA. 6. Bo
Co-Authors: -Ahmadpour,Elham* -Valois, Isabelle* -Halle, Stephane (Mechanical engineering Department of ETS, University of Quebec, Montreal, Canada) -Ryan, Patrick Eddy* -Thuot, Ross * - El Aroussi, Badr* - Haddad , Sami* -Debia, Maximilien* * Department of Environmental and Occupational Health of the University of Montreal,Montreal, Canada
Presenter/Author: Elham Ahmadpour; Montreal University; Montreal, Quebec; Canada
Stability Study and Improved Method Development for Sampling and Analysis of 1,3,5-Triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC)
An improved method for sampling TGIC on uncoated glass fiber filters and analysis using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) is presented here. In the OSHA sampling and analytical method OSHA PV2055, samples are collected on hydrobromic acid (HBr) coated glass fiber filters. It was suspected that there may not be enough gaseous HBr left for the derivatization. Our investigation proved that most of the TGIC remain underivatized in the samplers and require additional HBr to obtain the TGIC-HBr derivative. This change in the extraction procedure improved the analyte recovery. Since TGIC mostly remains underivatized in the HBr coated filters, it was decided to collect the TGIC using uncoated glass fiber filters. Collection of TGIC samples on uncoated glass fiber filters help to qualitatively identify underivatized TGIC using GC-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). It was also observed that the TGIC powder obtained from different suppliers is stable for 12 -15 years.
Acknowledgements and References: 1) Duane, L.; June 1988 OSHA. Method no. PV2055, 1,3,5-triglycidyl isocyanurate. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC. 2) D. Willcocks, Ms. L. Onyon, Ms. C. Jenkins, and B. Diver: Chemical Assessment Division, National Occupational Health and Safety Commission, Australia. Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 8, Triglycidyl isocyanurate 1998, available from as of March 3, 2004: http://www.inchem.org/pages/cicads.html. 3) a) S. Allmaras. Worker exposure to 1,3,5-triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) in powder paint coating operations. Appl. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 2003, vol 18, pp. 151. b) Sherman, S., Gannon, J., Buchi, G., W.R. Howell: Epoxy resins. Grayson, M, and Eckroth, D (ed): Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd edition. New York, NY. John Wiley and Sons, 1981, vol 9, pp. 272. 4) U. Erikstam, M. Bruze, A. Goossens. Degradation of triglycidyl isocyanurate as a cause of false-negative patch test reaction. Contact Dermatitis
Co-Authors: Philip A. Smith
Presenter/Author: Radha Ukkiramapandian; OSHA; Murray, UT